Robotic surgery is computer assisted surgery and we can call it as “robotically assisted surgery”in technological terms that uses robotic systems to perform surgical procedures. This surgery was developed to overcome the drawbacks of minimally-invasive surgery and to increase the capabilities of the surgeons to do any type of open surgery. In this type of surgery, the surgeon uses different methods to take control over the instruments. A telemanipulator is a manipulator which is remote and helps the surgeon to do all the normal movements that are linked to the surgery. Robotic arms are used for those movements with the help of end-effectors and manipulators perform the actual surgery on the patient. Although the input is provided with the help of telemanipulators but a computer is used to control the robotic arms and its end-effectors. This technology has made it possible to do remote surgery as the surgeon can do it from anywhere in the world.Some of the advantages and drawbacks of this type of surgery are discussed here:
Advantages of robotic surgery:
Robotic surgery increases dexterity as the instrument that hold high degrees of freedom enhances the surgeon’s ability to finesse instruments and tissues. The right type of hardware and software filters in robots help the surgeons as tremor can be manipulated at the end-effectors motion. This method helps to scale movements so that any type of big movement of control grips can be revolutionized into micro motions within the patient.
Proper hand-eye co-ordination:
This surgery restores the co-ordination among hand and eye and develops ergonomic position. These robotic systems eradicate the need of fulcrum and make the manipulation of instruments more spontaneous. The twist and turn required for moving instruments and awkward monitoring of visualizations is also not required by the surgeon who can perform the surgery in an ergonomically designed workstation and current systems.
The 3-D vision given by the use of this technology is remarkable. It gives an in-depth perception of the marked improvement required over the conventional laparoscopic camera views. The surgeon is able to control the stable visual field with greater magnification and maneuverability. This leads to the availability of 3-D images with high resolution and more freedom and dexterity. The surgeon can dissect the anatomic structures also with the help of this technology.
Drawbacks of robotic surgery:
As robotic surgery is a newer technology,so it cannot be said that it will give effective results. Although to see its effectiveness, many feasibility studies have been conducted but no follow up studies have been made. Some of the procedures are getting redesigned to optimize the best use of robotic arms and its efficiency. However, time will overcome this drawback.